Waste

Our experience in waste management covers project management, designing and engineering based on technologycal and economy sustainability. This combination enables us to develop cost-effective and sustainable waste management solutions that meet regulatory requirements and protect human health and the environment.

ENGINEERIK has successfully design separation and composting installations for productive utilization of wastes. Our experts design effective and safe landfills.

Our services for sector Wastes, include:

  • Strategic waste management planning
  • Analysis and studies of waste generated
  • Planning, designing, project management and supervision of waste treatment facilities
  •  Disposal of waste
  •   Waste to energy:
    • Waste incineration systems;
    • Biogas production systems – Dry, semi-dry and / or liquid methanization;
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    •  Pellet and RDF production systems
  • Resource efficiency and support for the circular economy through the implementation of Waste to Product Systems:

    • Processing of plastic products for reuse;

  • Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCC) and Environmental Assessment (LCA).

In the process of landfill design,  pre-treatment plants and composting plants, we strictly comply with the legislation in the field of environmental protection.

PRE-TREATMENT INSTALLATIONS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE

The pre-treatment plant shall be dimensioned according to a detailed morphological analysis including at its core:

  • Raw material inlet;
  • Temporary storage;
  • Chain belt conveyors feeding the automated bag opening system;
  • Bag Opener Equipment – Bag Opener;
  • Pre-separation system with the waste sieve of the respective fractions;
  • System for stabilization of the sieve fraction to the pre-treatment plant;
Pre-treatment instalation
  • Manual sorting booth (depending on the capacities, the possibility of introducing an automatic sorting system should be analyzed);
  • System for transportation and baling of recyclable materials;
  • Premise for temporary storage of separated materials and baled fraction.

STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR BIO-WASTE MANAGEMENT

Bio-waste management must follow the correct “waste hierarchy”, according to Commission Communication COM (2010) 235 “Future steps for bio-waste management in the European Union”. This means that waste prevention must be the primary objective, followed by separate collection and biological treatment, such as composting or anaerobic digestion.

As a result of the implementation of the Landfill Directive, the quantities of biodegradable waste landfilled, including bio-waste, have to be reduced dramatically in the coming years. As shown in the figure below, the options for the treatment of municipal waste that have been proven on a large scale and in many countries are:

  • Biological treatment: composting
  • Mechanical-biological treatment
  • Burning
Pathway for decomposition of organic matter by aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion

The first stages of both processes are hydrolysis and acidification. In the process of hydrolysis, organic macromolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats are microbially degraded to monomers.

In aerobic composting, the monomers are mineralized to carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O – the so-called infiltrate) and heat is released. This heat during the composting process, within 40 to 60 days, helps to partially reduce the water released, resulting in the organic waste being dried to the physical properties of humus. The final end product is compost, which contains stabilized and partially transformed organic matter, often called humus.

In anaerobic composting, the monomers are mineralized to carbon dioxide, water and methane (CH4). The gas mixture is called biogas. Anaerobic degradation of organic waste leads to an increase in ammonia. The energy produced from anaerobic digestion is stored in methane, which results in the organic waste not being dried. The digestate product (digestate) must be treated with an additional step to obtain a dry product. The end product is largely similar to aerobic composting.

Whether the organic waste is suitable for composting or anaerobic digestion depends on the composition of the organic material. In general, materials with a high lignite-cellulose content are less susceptible to degradation (producing only a small amount of biogas) under anaerobic conditions and are therefore more suitable for aerobic treatment.

BIOGAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS THROUGH THE RPOCESS OF ANAEROBIC STABILIZATION OF ORGANIC WASTE

Anaerobic treatment is suitable for wet materials with a high content of organic components prone to degradation as kitchen waste, while dry and woody organic waste such as tree branches are more suitable for composting. Anaerobic degradation of dry waste as bio-waste is done either during intensive pre-treatment (removal of inert particles) or in the so-called “dry system”.

Anaerobic digestion to produce methane undergoes three main phases / reactions
  • Hydrolysis;
  • Acid formation (acidogenesis);
  • And methane formation (methanogenesis).
During the years of research, pilot plants, practical experience related to the treatment of bio-waste in biogas plants, several different biogas technologies have been identified
  • Wet fermentation;
  • Dry continuous fermentation;
  • Dry intermittent fermentation.
The main criteria for input materials and types of technologies and processes are:
  • Substrate dry matter content and process temperature profile;
  • Substrate charging system (continuous – intermittent batch system);
  • Number of reactors in series and type of reactors (depending on mixing mode).

COMPOSTING INSTALATION OF ORGANIC HOUSEHOLD WASTE AND GREEN WASTE

With regard to composting installations, the conditions for the ecological treatment of green and biodegradable waste are created in accordance with the technical / work design and with the regulatory requirements for this type of activity. The main objective is to organize separate collection and subsequent treatment of green and / or biodegradable municipal waste from the maintenance of public areas, parks and gardens, green areas to commercial sites, production and administrative buildings, as well as households within the territory of each municipality, with which to:

  • reduce the amount of landfilled waste and greenhouse gas emissions from landfilling of biodegradable waste;
  • reduce environmental risk;
  • reduce the risk for the municipal waste collection and treatment systems, the separate collection systems for packaging waste and their subsequent recycling and recovery;
  • reduce the risk of unexpected, extreme operation conditions on the site of a regional landfill.

Each of the waste management regions, systems for separate collection, reuse, recycling and recovery of municipal waste should ensure at least the implementation of the following:

  • by 31 December 2020 at the latest, limit the amount of landfilled biodegradable municipal waste waste up to 35 percent of the total amount of the same waste generated on national level.

According to the definition set out in the Ordinance on Separate Bio-Waste Collection and Treatment of Biodegradable Waste, “composting” is the process of controlled aerobic, exothermic, biological degradation of separately collected bio-waste and sludge in order to obtain compost.

The purpose of the composting process is to transform natural bio-waste through a controlled, aerobic biological process into humus-rich material that is suitable for useful use in agriculture, horticulture and landscaping.

In accordance with the national and European requirements biowaste from the maintenance of public areas, parks and gardens must be collected separately and treated by composting or anaerobic digestion in a way that provides a high level of environmental protection.

The composting process basically involves the
following five steps
  • Preparation of raw material
  • Active composting
  • Maturation
  • Screening
  • Storage
The following basic composting machinery is used in the composting process, but is not limited to each case​
  • Machine for crushing incoming material;
  • Mixing and aeration system;
  • Front loader and Compost Screening Machine

FUNCTIONAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED INSTALLATIONS FOR PRE-TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTE AND COMPOSTING INSTALATIONS

Functional solutions are developed according to the guidelines presented, regarding the location of the sub-objects and the design assignment.

Within the administrative and residential area of ​​the two sites the following should be included as basis:

  • barrier;
  • car parking;
  • control and security;
  • administrative building;
  • Tire wash area;
  • mud catcher;
  • LWWTP (local waste water treatment plant);
  • Water tank for waste water;
  • tank for Fire Protection needs with adjoining diesel generator;
  • Infiltration tank (depends ot the technical specifications);
  • communication

MANICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THROUGH THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WASTE LANDFILL

After delivery of the municipal waste to the pre-treatment and composting sites, they are sent for processing. The residual product after the pre-treatment plant is deposited at the landfill. When designing a project for a Landfill, the parameters of each cell in the landfill should be evaluated.

The concepts, which are developed and implemented as design solutions, create the conditions for carrying out activities related to the construction of the cells and the reclamation of the landfill as soon as possible after the disposal of the pre-treated at the plant for mechanical-biological processing / MBP / municipal waste.

When designing a landfill, a certain number of cells should be divided according to the needs of the installation, which are gradually being put into service. For each cell, vertical planning, construction of dikes, installation of a lower insulation screen, construction of infiltrate system

Landfill cells are the final disposal site for the entire project. In order to prevent emissions into the air, water and soil, the project scope provides for the necessary technical measures. Cost-effectiveness, modern technologies and aesthetics are taken into account as the main parameters of construction and the efficient operation during the life cycle of the landfill.

The scope of project development may include
  • Filling volume, density and efficient service life;
  • Topological characteristic;
  • Geological engineering studies;
  • Water management:
    • Atmospheric water system;
    • Security channels;
    • Groundwater;
  • Vertical layout;
  • Insulation screen;
  • Technical reclamation;
  • Biogas treatment system;
  • Biological reclamation;
  • Sloping resistance;
  • Environmental protection.
The monitoring plan includes the following main components
  • Establishment of monitoring system and monitoring points;
  • Control and monitoring of environmental parameters;
  • Measurements, testing and analysis required;
  • Maintenance of points;
  • Register of coordinates of monitoring points.